A Trimethylguanosine Synthase1-like (TGS1) homologue is implicated in vernalisation and flowering time control.
KEY MESSAGEA plant-specific Trimethylguanosine Synthase1-like homologue was identified as a candidate gene for the efl mutation in narrow-leafed lupin, which alters phenology by reducing vernalisation requirement. The vernalisation pathway is a key component of flowering time control in plants from temperate regions but is not well understood in the legume family. Here we examined vernalisation control in the temperate grain legume species, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), and discovered a candidate gene for an ethylene imine mutation (efl). The efl mutation changes phenology from late to mid-season flowering and additionally causes transformation from obligate to facultative vernalisation requirement. The efl locus was mapped to pseudochromosome NLL-10 in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed by accelerated single seed descent. Candidate genes were identified in the reference genome, and a diverse panel of narrow-leafed lupins was screened to validate mutations specific to accessions with efl. A non-synonymous SNP mutation within an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase protein domain of a Trimethylguanosine Synthase1-like (TGS1) orthologue was identified as the candidate mutation giving rise to efl. This mutation caused substitution of an amino acid within an established motif at a position that is otherwise highly conserved in several plant families and was perfectly correlated with the efl phenotype in F2 and F6 genetic population and a panel of diverse accessions, including the original efl mutant. Expression of the TGS1 homologue did not differ between wild-type and efl genotypes, supporting altered functional activity of the gene product. This is the first time a TGS1 orthologue has been associated with vernalisation response and flowering time control in any plant species.
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