Genetic and phenotypic diversity of selected Kenyan mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilckzek) genotypes.
BACKGROUNDMung bean is a pulse crop principally grown in the tropic and subtropic parts of the world for its nutrient-rich seeds. Seven mung beans accessions from Eastern Kenya were evaluated using thirteen phenotypic traits. In addition, 10 SSR markers were used to determine their genetic diversity and population structure. This aimed at enhancing germplasm utilization for subsequent mung bean breeding programs.
RESULTSAnalysis of variance for most of the phenology traits showed significant variation, with the yield traits recording the highest. The first three principal components (PC) explained 83.4% of the overall phenotypic variation, with the highest (PC1) being due to variation of majority of the traits studied such as pod length, plant height, and seeds per pod. The dendogram revealed that the improved genotypes had common ancestry with the local landraces. The seven mung beans were also genotyped using 10 microsatellite markers, eight of which showed clear and consistent amplification profiles with scorable polymorphisms in all the studied genotypes. Genetic diversity, allele number, and polymorphic information content (PIC) were determined using powermarker (version 3.25) and phylogenetic tree constructed using DARWIN version 6.0.12. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was calculated using GenALEx version 6.5. A total of 23 alleles were detected from the seven genotypes on all the chromosomes studied with an average of 2.875 across the loci. The PIC values ranged from 0.1224 (CEDG056) to 0.5918 (CEDG092) with a mean of 0.3724. Among the markers, CEDG092 was highly informative while the rest were reasonably informative except CEDG056, which was less informative. Gene diversity ranged from 0.1836 (CEDG050) to 0.5102 (CDED088) with an average of 0.3534. The Jaccards dissimilarity matrix indicated that genotypes VC614850 and N26 had the highest level of dissimilarity while VC637245 and N26 had lowest dissimilarity index. The phylogenetic tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters as revealed by population structure analysis (K = 3), with cluster III having one unique genotype (VC6137B) only. AMOVA indicated that the highest variation (99%) was between individual genotype. In addition, marker traits association analysis revealed 18 significant associations (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONThese findings indicate sufficient variation among the studied genotypes that can be considered for germplasm breeding programs.
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