Association of SNP Markers with Agronomic and Quality Traits of Field Pea in Italy
Only a few studies on pea (Pisum sativum) investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with key agronomic traits. This study aimed to explore the association of a standard set of 384 SNP with grain yield, seed protein content, seed weight, onset of flowering, plant height and lodging susceptibility, in three connected bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations including 90 lines each. These RIL originated from crosses between three cultivars that displayed high and stable grain yield across Italian environments, namely, Attika (A), Isard (I), and Kaspa (K). The 270 lines were phenotyped in a spring-sown environment of Lodi (northern Italy; 45°19'N, 9°30'E). Variation among lines within the populations was significant (P < 0.01) in all cases except lodging susceptibility in one cross and, when expressed in terms of the genetic coefficient of variation, proved moderately large for most traits (including grain yield and seed protein content). Overall, we detected six quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the A × I linkage map, eight QTL in K × A, and nine QTL in K × I. Among them, there were three QTL in K × A and two QTL in K × I for grain yield, and one QTL in A × I and two QTL in both K × A and K × I for seed protein content. The consensus map, which included 130 markers (covering about 1094 cM), retained one QTL for grain yield and one for flowering time that co-located on LGII, and three for seed weight on LGIII, LGVI and LGVII. The QTL co-locating for yield and flowering time explained 8% and 31% of the overall phenotypic variation, respectively, for the two traits, and could be exploited in marker-assisted selection for adaptation to the target region.
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